The Nobel Prize is named after Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize was in in his last will and testament, which was read in 1895. The first was not awarded until 1901 due to controversy.

In the beginning his estate was divided into five equal parts. Nobel wrote that the prizes were to be given to the most worthy, whether Scandinavian or not.

"One part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. Champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting." Nobel Peace Prize was awarded on Monday, October 10 to the group Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet, which was formed in 2013.

The Quartet consists of The Tunisian General Labor Union; Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts; Tunisian Human Rights League and Tunisian Order of Lawyers. The group represents the working life and welfare, principles of the rule and law and human rights. It was formed in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011 establishing a peaceful political process on the brink of a country's civil war.

Field of Chemistry, Nobel Prize for Chemistry, which is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It was awarded on Wednesday, October 7 to Tomas Lindhal of Francis Crick Institute and Clare Hall Laboratory, Hertfordshire, UK; Paul Modrich of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke Universit School of Medicine, Durham, NC and Aziz Sancar of University of North Carolina for mechanistic studies of DNA repair.

Field of Physics, Nobel Prize of Physics, which was awarded on Tuesday, October 6 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to Takaaki Kajita of Super-Kamiokande Collaboration at University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan and Arthur B. McDonald of Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Collarboration, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada for "showing neutrinos have mass."

Field of Physiology or medicine, Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine, and awarded by Karolinska Institute of Stockholm. It was awarded on Monday,October 5 to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Omura - discovered Avermectin therapy against roundworm parasites and to Youyou Tu who discovered Artemisinin, therapy against Malaria.

Field of Literature, Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded by Academy in Stockholm. It was awarded on Thursday, October 8 to Belarusian author Svetlana Alexievich.

On Monday, October 12, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel to Angus Deaton of Princeton University, NJ for "analysis of consumption, poverty and welfare."

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